The more we know the harder it is to defeat us!

Long range wireless communication is getting more and more attention. Today, I would like to share with you my experience with a LoRa module — SX1278 and also the drive for this device.

LoRa took its name from “Long Range”. It is a proprietary communication system which is using chirp spread spectrum radio modulation technology. In other words, it uses chirps to encode a piece of information. What is really interesting about the LoRa is a fact that it can transmit data over very long distance. By very long distance I mean over a couple of kilometres and sometimes more and all of this is done very power–efficiently.

I decided to work on SX1278 LoRa module. It is an affordable radio module and offers not only LoRa but other types of modulation like FSK. The test platform is an STM32F103C8T6 development board.


You need two boards equipped with STM32F103C8T6 MCU and two SX1278 modules.

One of the boards will work as master and the other one will work as slave. Master is sending data to slave. Both boards have the same firmware. The mode in which the board is working in is determined by the state of input pin PB2.

Above you can see screen shoot from CubeMX where MCU’s pins are configured.

To actually see what is being send over via radio SWV interface was used. For this to work you need to have a debugger, preferably ST-Link V2, with support for SWV. Sometimes when you want to take advantage of SWV it does not work out of the box. The most probable reason for this is that the debugger firmware outdated. Please remember to upgrade the firmware of ST-Link in advance.


The module has to be connected with the MCU board with following pins:

MCU pin SX1278 pin Description
PA4 NSS SPI chip–select
PB0 DIO0 LoRa interrupt indicator pin (for receiver mode)
PB1 RST LoRa reset
——- ———- ———–

The SX1278 communicates with STM32 MCU via SPI those are PA4, PA5, PA6 and PA7. There are two other logic pins — PB0 which is DIO0 of radio module and PB1 which is Reset pin of this module. The meaning of the reset input if obvious, what is not is the DIO0. It is used for pulling the state of LoRa module. If the DIO0 output is high it means that there are received data and MCU can read it. MCU can be configured for detecting rising edge to trigger immediate action of reading the data. However, in this example polling was used (checking manually if the DIO0 is high).


The example was prepared for SW4STM32 IDE. However, nothing stands in the way to use other IDE like i.e. TrueSTUDIO – Atollic.


After flashing the image you should mind the PB2 port. It is configured as input and depending on its state the board boots as a master or as a slave. For master mode the PB2 has to be pulled high. For slave mode the PB2 has to be pulled low.

All the communication is going through redirected printf() function to SWV. To read the communicates you have to have ST-Link Utility installed. There you can chose Printf via SWO viewer and set the right frequency.

Before you start transmitting and receiving data via LoRa you need to set up the driver. Below is an example how to do this.

Provided example works in ordinary fashion, the master board is constantly sending messages while the slave is constantly reading them. That’s simple, isn’t it? Below a code snippet was provided to clarify the situation.


Working example

Below you can see two screen shoots. The first one shows a log from master session. The second image shows a log from slave session.



Source code

If you are intrigued enough you can go and download the driver or the whole example. Both are available at my github. The driver is written in C and it can be easily ported to other targets. Also the hardware layer was separated from the driver logic so it is not a hassle to actually port it.

The driver — SX1278

The example — SX1278-example

90 Responses to STM32 HAL driver for LoRa SX1278 wireless module

  • Avatar
    saeed says:

    hi, thanks for your blog.
    i have two stm32l152 and lora sx1278. i’m going to send and receive data with keil IDE.
    your example is for SW4STM32.
    could you help me please?

    • Yes, the example was prepared for SW4STM32. Unfortunately, I do not use Keil software but you should be able to import this example. If not you can try to create an empty project and copy source files which are inside SX1278-example repository — it should work flawlessly.

    • As a matter a fact I have forgotten to mention a different path.
      You can take the STM32CubeMX file and change the Toolchain to MDK-ARM and regenerate the code. I think it will be the most straight forward way to do this.

  • Avatar
    pooriya says:

    Hi thank you.
    i have questions!
    What is the maximum distance?
    and how can we get it?
    The program must be change?

    • I am still planning to do some range testing. You do not have to change the program. However, tweeting the parameters as spread factor can give you better results.

  • Avatar
    pooriya says:

    I ask some where if you shift 0x10000 in DIO1 – 5 . in for example 1 ms .it work for 9600 meters.
    but i don’t test it.

    • Sorry, but I do not know how it should work. The DIO pins are described in the datasheet and they perform specific functions as described in there. Where did you get that idea?

  • Avatar
    John says:

    Thanks for sharing your works.
    but i have a little problem with your project. Can you help me with project for stm32f0?
    i use two board for test, and i make program for master and slave and it not work…maybe you can check my project?
    thank you

  • Avatar
    John says:

    yes. copy your project on the stm32f0 via cube after generate code and add your files gpio/spi/sxlib and i use your code from main file. I change pin for my board and now my project success compile. But between board tx/rx not work
    if you want i can send my project with cube on your mail

    • You are only required to copy the driver of the SX1278 and some of the code from main. While regenerating the code Cube will take care of adjusting GPIO and so on. You should not copy them to the new project. Just a quick question, did you connected all required pins of the LoRa module to your STM32?
      You can send it to me but I do not have STM32F0 to check it. The best way of sharing your project would be by using Github and sending me a link to it.

    • Ok. I took a look at your code. Everything looks all right. The reason you do not see anything is that because you did not redefined _write() function. In the example I am using SWV as a debug interface. It is using SWO pin at which it is sending the data. You could use an UART interface if you wish.

  • Avatar
    John says:

    thank you,. yes, now i use interface usart for debug. Now i make
    if (master == 1) {
    HAL_USART_Puts(USART1,”Mode: Master\r\n”);

    //init lora module

    HAL_USART_Puts(USART1, “Configuring LoRa module\n\r”);

    now in my serial port i see only the master, but I do not see the initialization parameter and other parameters 🙁

    • Where did you get this function HAL_USART_Puts() from? From HAL lib you get only HAL_UART_Transmit() and similar. I advice you to sort out the communication first. After that you can use it to properly redefine _write() to use your serial interface as output for printf(). Also, the less you change the original code the better. The example I have uploaded works and was tested with STM32F1 and it should work also for you. I have confirmations that it was also ported to STM32F4 where it also works. You only need to sort out the communication issue.

    • You welcome! As for the SWV that is why I did write to use a serial interface like UART. Then you only need to redefine the _write() function and everything should work out of the box provided that the serial interface is properly configured. Redefinition of _write() function can look like this for UART:

      int _write(int file, char *ptr, int len) {
      return len;

    • Yes, I have some nucleo for F4 but if you are going to ask if I have used it on that board then no. However, as I have written earlier I know that one guy has successfully run the code on STM32F4.

  • Avatar
    John says:

    i can’t launch your library. Did the necessary for checks SPI and he work, the registers are read and written, the state of GPIO is the same as yours, what else needs to be change? If there is an opportunity, share an example for a f4disc…

  • Avatar
    John says:

    in serial wire i see only:

    Mode: Slave
    Configuring LoRa module
    Done configuring LoRaModule
    Slave …
    Receiving package…
    Received: 0
    Package received …
    Slave …
    Receiving package…
    Received: 0
    Package received …
    Slave …

    and master side:

    Master …
    Sending package…
    Entry: 0
    Sending Hello 2
    Transmission: 0
    Package sent…
    Master …
    Sending package…
    Entry: 0
    Sending Hello 3

    what i can check for launch lib?

    • It seams that the Master does not send any data. Look at what you have received from debug log of the Master:

      Transmission: 0

      It means that the function SX1278_LoRaTxPacket() returned 0 because of timeout. There was no signal on DIO0 of the SX1278. Also check what value is returned by
      ret = SX1278_LoRaEntryTx(&SX1278, 16, 2000);
      at the very beginning.

  • Avatar
    John says:

    oh, yah, i see, on the tx board not needed use DIO for transmit. Now in the debug i see:

    Transmission: 1
    Package sent…
    Master …
    Sending package…
    Entry: 1
    Transmission: 1
    Package sent…
    Master …
    Sending package…
    Entry: 1
    Transmission: 1
    Package sent…
    Master ..

    but not see it on the receiver

    • What did:
      ret = SX1278_LoRaEntryRx(&SX1278, 16, 2000);
      Also, below function:
      ret = SX1278_LoRaRxPacket(&SX1278);
      is also using DIO0 to know if there are any pending data to be read. From what you have written before I think that you did not connect the DIO0 on the slave side.
      Please connect all pins as described in the table inside the post.

    • Reading raw value from LoRa module is pretty straightforward. However, SX1278_RSSI_LoRa() returns RSSI after some calculations. The way you calculate the RSSI differs depending on what configuration you are using. Please refer to SX1278 documentation for more information.

  • Avatar
    Huzaifah says:

    Thank you so much for your help, actually i want o implement code of SX1278 on STM32L152 as you mentioned earlier i have added the header files and other necessary files into the folders but i have one doubt regarding the pins,
    1. MODE pin where i have to connect on board and on Module.
    2. Same for the DIO0 pin.
    Thank You!

    • The MODE pin can be any GPIO configured as input same goes for DIO0. Just remember to update hardware initialization structure for LoRa module:
      SX1278_hw.dio0.port = DIO0_GPIO_Port; = DIO0_Pin;
      The MODE pin is selecting whether the board works as master or as slave. If you stick to the same labels in Cube and regenerate code everything should work right of the box. Since you are running this example on STM32L1 the easiest way is to import my example and change appropriate pins.

  • Avatar
    StraryAnoda says:

    Why does the transmission crash when the send time is accelerated from 2,500 milliseconds to for example 100 milliseconds?

    • I did no try this out. But you can do that kind of experiment. The minimum gap between data transfers is defined by the parameters of transmission and how many data you want to send. You can calculate it based on datasheet of SX1278 device.

  • Avatar
    Lê Thanh Dương says:

    I did followed your instructions with the Dragino LoRa Shield instead of SX1278. I connected the wire and also use SX11278.c to do just like you. However, ret = SX1278_LoRaEntryTx(&SX1278, message_length, 2000) or ret = SX1278_LoRaTxPacket(&SX1278, (uint8_t *) buffer, message_length, 2000) always returned to 0 not 1 like you to send and receice the package. I do not know how to fix that. I used KeilC to do that. Do you have any idea to solve it?

    • My first step in solving this would be to actually check if there is proper ongoing SPI transmission. You can verify that by reading some register with constant value or using a logic analyser. SX1278_LoRaEntryTx() returns 0 when the timeout has been reached. That is why I would check SPI communication first.

  • Avatar
    Luqman says:

    can i use multiple transmitters sending data to one receiver with your driver? i have a project to set multiple node of wireless sensor network, and i’m interested to use sx1278 lora module and stm32f103.

    • Yes, you can do this. There are two ways. You can use single SPI and share MISO, MOSI and SCK pins (as it was intended) or you can use different SPIs. The best way would be to use single SPI and multiple CSes (chip select pins) to chose with which device you want to communicate with. Also remember to use different pins for DIO0 and RST for each LoRa module.

  • Avatar
    John says:

    Good day, Wojciech Domski
    Help me please, can you show me how i can read rssi from your lib? i see function but if i use this function i see only data “H#” on the receiver. I can’t understand why…
    please, show me a little example

    • Hi!
      You have two functions for this: SX1278_RSSI_LoRa() and SX1278_RSSI().
      SX1278_RSSI_LoRa() read data from 0x1B register and returns the absolute RSSI value in dBm.
      SX1278_RSSI() read data from 0x11 register and returns the current RSSI value in dBm.
      All RSSI values returned by the functions are positive. You can always refer to SX1278 manual for more documentation. It is explained there. However, I do not know how you got 2 bytes “H#” instead one since both functions in question return uint8_t.

  • Avatar
    Roman says:

    Good day, Wojciech Domski
    Help me please, i want to implement code of SX1278 on STM32F0 and i have a question:
    1. How could i change parameters such as Frequency, SpreadFactor, LoRaBandwidth, Power

    • Hi. Have you had a look at the example. In the main.c file you have initialization of the LoRa module:
      SX1278_begin(&SX1278, SX1278_433MHZ, SX1278_POWER_17DBM, SX1278_LORA_SF_8, SX1278_LORA_BW_20_8KHZ, 10);
      Through this function you can initialize the module and set all the necessary parameters.

  • Avatar
    alvaloa says:

    Thanks for sharing your great work.

    I’m thinking of implementing a Half-Duplex communication (both transmit and receive, but not simultaneously) and in your code I see that to receive any data, I must configure a transceiver as a slave necessarily. In a communication in which the Master constantly sends data to the Slave, there will be some way in which the Master can receive data that the Slave sends, but does not know when ?. Thank you

  • Avatar
    Alvaro says:

    Hi, Wojciech Domski

    I’m using an RA-02 module like this:

    This module seems to be similar to yours, but, the datasheet (Semtech SX1276/77/78) indicates that the maximum power is +20 dBm (the RA-02 module indicates +18 dBm). Do you think there will be a problem if I set my module (RA-02) to +20 dBm (using the PA_BOOST pin in the RegPaConfig register)?
    I am trying to reach the maximum possible range but without exceeding SF = 7 and BW = 125KHz

    Thank you

    • Hi Alvaro,

      Yes, I think you can give it a try. Since both modules are based on the same Semtech chip it should work. If you have modified other values in RegPaConfig, also set OutputPower to 0x0F (it’s default value).
      Please leave a comment when you run some tests. I am really curious about the results.

    • Avatar
      Alvaro says:

      Sorry for the late reply.
      As I mentioned, I am using the RA-02 module (based on the SX-1278 chip) and it indicates that the maximum power is +18 dBm. I set the registers: RegPaConfig = 0x8F (PA_BOOST selected) and RegPaDac = 0x87 (Enables the + 20dBm option on PA_BOOST pin). I directly connected the SMA output of the LoRa module to two attenuators (each of 30 dBm) and then to the RTL-SDR. I could see that, between the configuration of +17 dBm and +20 dBm, there was a difference of 2-3 dB (It would be better if this was done with a spectrum analyzer)

      It is curious that the module indicates + 18dBm, already the datasheet indicates that it could be +17 dBm or +20 dBm, but nothing intermediate. I also noticed that the SX-1278 chip, although it has two outputs (RFO and PA_BOOST), the only output enabled is the PA_BOOST, since when configuring RegPaConfig and selecting RFO pin, I did not get anything in the output

    • Also, it is worthy of a note that LoRa modules have additional components on the board. If you design your own module you could overcome some limitations. For example, the SX1278 chip’s frequency can be altered in broad range. However, on the LoRa modules there are filters which block the signal.

  • Avatar
    pedram says:

    Hi, I have four lora nodes. Each node is made with STM32 and RA-01 (sx1278) Lora module.
    On of the nodes is considred as master. How can I send data to one of the three other slave nodes?
    Can I assign a dedicated code to each slave node?

    • Basically when you use LoRa module it does not have a support for any protocol. Generally, it broadcast data to all recipients. You can implement a simple data frame which has an ID field through which it identifies nodes. After each node receives this datagram it checks if it is addressed to it, if not then it drops it. On the other hand, you can use LoRaWAN protocol which uses LoRa as a transportation layer. The choice is yours. However, for a simple communication you can implement what I have described at the beginning.

    • Answering your both questions.
      Keil is only IDE. You can either import the project or add necessary files by hand (driver and some example). That’s all.
      As for different frequencies. Yes, you can change the frequency by modifying proper registers in SX1278 module. I believe it was already answered in the comments, if not then you you have to modify three registers such as RegFrfMsb (0x06), RegFrfMid (0x07) and RegFrfLsb (0x08). The frequency is a multiplication of Frf (value concatenated from previously mentioned three registers) times frequency step (61Hz). Have a look at the manual for the SX1278.
      Please also keep in mind that you need to have a proper module prepared for required band. If you use module for different band it will not work.

    • Yes, you can do this by calculating the value of register RegFrf. Since the frequency step is 61Hz and you want to get 525MHz you can obtain the correct value of RegFrf like this
      525MHz / 61Hz (approx)= 8606557 = 0x83535D.
      Now, you put this value to RegFrf like so
      RegFrfMsb (0x06) = 0x83, RegFrfMid (0x07) = 0x53 and RegFrfLsb (0x08) = 0x5D.
      Keep in mind that this is approximate value. The real frequency would be 8606557 * 61Hz = 524999977Hz (approx)= 525MHz.
      Now, you have to make some alteration to the code and change the line:

      static const uint8_t SX1278_Frequency[1][3] = { { 0x6C, 0x80, 0x00 }, //434MHz

      or better yet make a new definition

      #define SX1278_433MHZ 0
      #define SX1278_525MHZ 0

      static const uint8_t SX1278_Frequency[2][3] = { { 0x6C, 0x80, 0x00 }, //434MHz
      { 0x83, 0x53, 0x5D }, //525MHz

      During the initialization you have to pass correct frequency.

  • Avatar
    Daniel says:

    Good day, Wojciech Domski
    I implement your code in microcontroller’s board. Unfortunately one of boards was burned. I bought it but it comes to me a week later. I connected one of the LoRa module to the board, Now in the debug just I see:

    Mode: Master
    Configuring LoRa module
    Mode: Slave
    Configuring LoRa module

    Although I only set up the sender’s (receiver’s) side, is this normal? Is the module burned too:( ?

  • Avatar
    Daniel says:

    Hi Mr.Domski
    I used your code in my project.
    But unfortunately one of my microcontroller was burn. I bought it, but they will sent it the next week.
    Now I connected one of Lora madule to my board and I see:
    Mode: master(or slave)
    Lora configuration…
    Compiler stopped in sx1278-begin function.
    Is it normal? Or my madule burned too?!

    • It is hard to say what is going on. You should debug the code to see where exactly it is hanging. Also I quite don’t get how compiler could stop at sx1278_begin function. I assume that you meant it hangs there during the execution.
      Could you also verify that all GPIOs are correctly connected?
      Did the module worker prior to the damage?

  • Avatar
    Masoud says:

    Dear Mr.Domski
    thank your for your help. It solved.

    May you Explain about:

    ret1 = SX1278_LoRaEntryTx(&SX1278, message_length, 2000);


    ret2 = SX1278_LoRaTxPacket(&SX1278, (uint8_t *) buffer, message_length,2000);

    I think when massage was send to slave madole, ret2 will be ‘1’.
    But about ret1 I do not know anything.

    regards, Masoud

    • SX1278_LoRaEntryTx() returns 1 if the module entered transmission mode successfully.
      SX1278_LoRaTxPacket() also returns 1 if the message was sent successfully.
      Both functions return 0 if a timeout period was reached.

  • Avatar
    Daniel says:

    Hi, Mr.Domski
    I wanna set up some LoRa network that don’t interfere with each other. for example three group that each group has two modules. which parameters of the code should be change ?

    • I do not have stack for LoRaWAN. However, there is an open source implementation from one of the vendors if I am correct. You can find it by downloading examples for LoRaWAN from ST.

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